No math is required to solve sudoku puzzles. The numbers are merely placeholders which could be replaced by letters, colors, symbols, pictures or anything else that distinguishes nine unique items. There are sudoku puzzles that use letters (called wordoku puzzles) and others that have pictures or colors.
Sudoku is a game in which deduction, techniques and logic are used to solve puzzles but math is definitely not needed.
Sudoku - the puzzle that addicts